By J.J. Brey, J. Marro, J.M. Rubi, M. SanMiguel

The publication goals to provide an outline of the former Sitges meetings, which were held over the last 25 years, with precise emphasis on issues concerning non-equilibrium phenomena. It contains overview articles and articles facing new tendencies within the topic, written by means of scientists who've performed a massive function within the improvement of this sector. The e-book is meant as a commemorative version of the Sitges meetings. Graduate scholars of physics and researchers will locate this a stimulating account of the advance of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics within the final years, masking a large scope of issues: kinetic concept, hydrodynamics, fluctuation phenomena and stochastic tactics, leisure phenomena, kinetics of part transitions, development kinetics, etc.

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Additional resources for 25 Years of Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Proceedings of the XIII Sitges Conference, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, 13-17 June 1994

Sample text

They appear in terms of the average time correlations between (microscopic) current fluctuations in the fluid in equilibrium. , is determined by the (macroscopic) transport coefficient L [6]. , positions and velocities) of the particles in the fluid, such that the (microscopic) current at time t = 0 is jL(O) as is indicated by [jL(0)]. rL is the relaxation time associated with the macroscopic transport coefficient L and to each transport coefficient L belongs a particular (microscopic) current jL(i) and relaxation time rL7].

This difference shows up strikingly when we compare Boltzmann's entropy--defined in (1) for a microstate X of a macroscopic system--with the more commonly used (and misused) entropy Sa of Gibbs, defined for an ensemble density p(X) by Sa ({p}) = -kfp(X)[log p(X)]dX. (3) Here p(X)dX is the probability (obtained some way or other) for the microscopic state of the system to be found in the phase space volume element dX and the integral is over tile phase space F. gB(M). e. when we have local equilibrium [10].

If we allowed this equalization to proceed for a certain time, and then reversed the motions of all the molecules, we would observe a disequalization. However, if the number of molecules is very large, as it is in a ga~s, any slight deviation from absolute ])recision in the reversal will greatly shorten the time during which disequalization occurs. In other words, the probability of occurrence of a distribution of velocities which will lead to disequalization of temperature for any perceptible length of time is very small.

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