By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

This quantity is the 3rd of a collection of 7 with regards to photovoltaics. sun cell-related applied sciences lined the following comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer similar crystalline silicon; and different complicated silicon sun telephone buildings and processes.

Semiconductors and Semimetals has exceptional itself during the cautious number of famous authors, editors, and participants. initially well known because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing various landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely suitable volumes meant for long term effect and reflecting the really interdisciplinary nature of the sector. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may remain of serious curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and machine engineers in academia, clinical laboratories and sleek industry.

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Extra resources for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,

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37) is dependent on total series resistance including the ribbon interconnectors and the current I squared (depending on the cell area A). Therefore, under module conditions the optimum amount of busbars is different, as Rs,tot is increased due to the contribution of the connecting ribbons. Several approaches have been developed in recent years to address this issue. , using the standard 17 18 On top of the busbars Sn coated Cu ribbons are soldered for interconnection of the cells in a string. 5 mm with a thickness of 150–250 μm.

Metal paste is printed through the openings in the emulsion through the mesh of wires onto the wafer lying under the screen. The screen is positioned on top of the wafer with a well-defined distance between screen and wafer (the snap-off distance). The paste is placed on top of the screen and a squeegee moving horizontally without pressure on the screen fills the openings of the mesh uniformly with paste. In the next horizontal movement of the squeegee over the screen, it is pressed onto the screen with a defined pressure, pressing the screen locally against the wafer surface and pushing the paste from the filled areas onto the wafer surface.

If in the first step a narrow seed layer is formed, high aspect ratios can be reached after plating. Several methods can be used to form the seed layer. , 2004). 16 Rsheet is not a very good characteristic for the quality of the emitter, as emitter quality is more closely linked to j0e. Nevertheless, sheet resistivity can be measured in an easy way, therefore it is often referred to. State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 39 Here, electro-less plating of a Ni layer is used, and after sintering forming nickel silicide low contact resistivity is reached.

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