By Ernst Lutz

Agriculture in constructing international locations has been remarkably profitable up to now few a long time in allowing nutrients construction to maintain speed with the becoming inhabitants. This good fortune has been completed partly on the fee of putting extra pressure on normal assets and the surroundings. As we glance to the longer term, the necessity to proceed expanding nutrition construction, whereas even as minimizing environmental damages, retaining the source base, and lowering poverty, hunge{, and malnutrition, poses a massive problem.

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Sample text

Poor farmers continue to have limited access to good land and therefore continue to exert pressure on the slopes (and on equally fragile land in the Amazon-Orinoco basin). Are there other solutions? Improving the techniques that hillside farmers use on marginal land may be part of the story. However, although low-cost technologies exist, little progress has been made in diffusing them, largely because the incentives are lacking: on marginal lands small farmers may have insufficient incentives to invest in soil conservation (Ashby 1985).

To devise an appropriate solution, it is necessary to look beyond the hillsides. The challenge is to improve the rural poor's access to less fragile, more fertile lands at lower elevations and to extend the opportunities for off-farm rural employment. We show here that it is necessary to change the agricultural policy framework that influences the operation of land and labor markets. Currie's prescription of accelerating rural-urban migration and turning farming over to large-scale, modernized commercial farmers has now been pursued in Colombia for more than 40 years.

However, females are less able to respond with alacrity to demand for shortterm workers, because they often must care for young children, which tends to reduce their mobility. Although women have less propensity than men to remain in rural areas, among those who do remain the rate of unemployment is much higher than it is for men. The particularlyhigh unemploymentrate for iural women (but not for men) is not a consequence of the low labor absorption of Colombianagriculture, which affects both men and women.

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