By Robert C. Whisonant

This is a clean examine the yank Civil warfare from the viewpoint of the common assets essential to preserve the armies within the box. This tale of the hyperlinks among minerals, topography, and the battle in western Virginia now involves mild in a fashion that reinforces our realizing of America’s maximum trial. 5 mineral items – niter, lead, salt, iron, and coal – have been completely necessary to salary warfare within the 1860s. For the armies of the South, these assets have been centred within the distant Appalachian highlands of southwestern Virginia. From the start of the warfare, the Union knew that the main to victory was once the destruction or career of the mines, furnaces, and forges situated there, in addition to the railroad that moved the assets to the place they have been desperately wanted. to accomplish this, Federal forces time and again complex into the treacherous mountainous terrain to struggle essentially the most savage battles of the conflict.

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Yet instead of finding the Orient, he splashed ashore onto an entirely new world. In fact, earlier Norse explorers had reached North America long before Columbus, but no real interest in the cold, harsh lands found by them had followed. Now, at the dawn of the sixteenth century, England and France entered the ferocious competition for the resources of the rediscovered continent and its bordering waters. The distance from the British Isles across the Atlantic to eastern Canada is little more than half the length of Columbus’s voyage, but this northern route has much fiercer weather and goes against the prevailing westerly winds.

C. 1007/978-3-319-14508-2_4 35 36 4 The Land They Fought For Fig. 1 Map of Gettysburg Battlefield. The “fish-hook-shaped” landform south of the town is Cemetery Ridge held by the Union. The long, linear feature running along the left side of the map is Seminary Ridge controlled by the Confederates. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress 4 The Land They Fought For 37 Fig. 2 Diabase exposed on the crest of Little Round Top near the southern end of Cemetery Ridge. The view is looking west toward Seminary Ridge (lined with trees in the middle distance) intrusion.

By the 1790s, American geography books were calling attention to the growing sectional divergence: “The northern and southern states differ widely in their customs, climate, produce, and in the general face of the country. The fisheries and commerce are the sinews of the north, tobacco, rice, and indigo of the south; the northern states are commodiously situated for trade and manufacture, the southern to furnish provisions and raw materials” [24]. New England’s rocky glacial soil and lack of coastal low country had indeed swayed the industrious folk away from agriculture toward manufacturing, fishing, and trade; consequently, commercial capital investment flowed into those sectors.

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